Main Article Content
Introduction. Existence is an important ontological category which is taken into consideration in the process of understanding the world and other environmental phenomena, when the fact of existence of substance is evident. Existence denotes everything that exists in life. In liguistics existence is represented by language units of different language levels. On syntactical level it is realized by sentences of being, which are formed by verbal predicate of being. Investigation of verbal sentences, which take into consideration semantic types of predicates, is of great importance for the analysis of the language model of the world. That's why linguists of today give more attention to making close study of speech creative potential of predicate. The main place in the general system of predicates of being belongs to the predicate of existence, which is the object of our investigation. In modern Ukrainian linguistic studies the predicates of existence are the least investigated: O. I. Leuta, N. V. Melekestseva, V. K. Sytnikova, V. I. Dmytruk and others. That's why the actuality of the investigation is obvious. Purpose. The aim of the article is to analyse speech creative potential of one of the nuclear verbal predicates of being - the predicate "to exist" - and to single out structural models of sentences of being with the given predicate. Methods.The main method of our investigation is structural method which is realized through:
– the method of distributional analysis to determine the valence potential of the predicate "to exist";
– the method of transformational analysis to determine similarity and difference of syntactical structures, when a complex sentence with the predicate of being is transformed into some simple sentences with the same predicate, and lexical composition of elements of the syntactical structure is preserved the same;
– the method of modelling to single out different models of semantic and syntactic structure of sentences of being.
Investigation Results. Investigation results can be used to analyse the deep structure of simple two-part sentence and to carry out structural and semantic analysis of sentences taking into consideration semantic types of predicates. Scientific Novelty. Scientific novelty is in the fact that the article is the fist to analyse speech creative potential of the nuclear predicate of being - "to exist". The article also determines its valence ability and singles out 11 sentence models with the given predicate. Author's Conclusions and Propositions. The predicate "to exist" forms semantic and syntactic structure of two-part sentence of being. Being in its nature monovalent predicate, it can realize its bi- and threevalence ability in different contexual surroudings, which is determined by different communication needs. It is used most frequently in scientific articles, it is less used in historical literature, and it is the least used in fiction texts. It determines the necessity to further investigate predicates of being which is of great theoretical importance for new understanding of the essence of the sentence of being, because it goes beyond its traditional interpretation as a composite nominative sentence.
Jespersen, O. (1958). Philosophy of grammar. Moscow: Publishing House of Foreign Literature (in Russ.)
Zvezdkina, E. F. (2004). The theory of philosophy. Moscow.: Philosophical society: "Word" (in Russ.)
Category of being and possession in language (1977): USSR Academy of Sciences: Institute of Linguistics. Moscow: Naukа (in Russ.)
Shvedova, N. Y. (1983). Words and grammatical laws of language. Moscow: Nauka (in Russ.)
Arutyunova, N. D. & Shiryaev E. N. Russian sentence. The existential type (structure and meaning). Moscow: Russian. (in Russ.)
Kondratenko, G. I. (1985). Lexical and semantic group of verbs with the meaning of beingness (based on a finding of verbs): Synopsis of the dissertation for a candidate degree in philology: 10.02.02 "Russian language". Moscow (in Russ.)
Volodinа, G. I. (1985). Sentences with a value of presence. Russky yazyk za rubezhom (Russian language abroad). 6, 74–77 (in Russ.)
Vorontsova, T. (1981). Semantic and syntactic organization of existential sentences (on the matetial of modern English): Synopsis of the dissertation for a candidate degree in philology: 10.02.04 "Germanic languages". L. (in Russ.)
Leuta, O. I. (2012) Structural and semantic organization of sentences of being in the Ukrainian language. Movoznavchy visnyk (Linguistic Herald). 194–200 (in Ukr.)
Pіrus, G. (2008). Structure of a sentence with predicates of possessive relations. Naukoviy visnyk Hersons'kogo derzhavnogo unіversitetu. Serіya "Lіngvіstika" (Scientific Herald of Kherson State University. Series "Linguistics"). 8, 102–106 (in Ukr.)
Mеlеkєstseva, N. V. (2011). Category of presence/absence in logical, philosophical and linguistic aspects. Naukovy Casopis Natsіonalnogo pedagogіchnogo unіversitetu іmenі M. P. DragomanovaSeria 10 (Scientific Annals of M. P.Dragomanov National Pedagogical University. Series 10. Problems of Grammar and Lexicology of the Ukrainian language). K.: NPU іmenі M. P. Dragomanovа. 167–172 (in Ukr.)
Sytnіkowa, V. K. (2013). Analysis of names of subjects of being at the example of the verbs meaning sounds: Science and Education a New DimensionPhilology, I (3), Issueaccess modes: // www. Seanewdim. Com (in Ukr.)
Dmytruk, V. I. (2000). Structural peculiarities of sentences of being in the Ukrainian languageNaukovі notes Kіrovogradskogo derzhavnogo pedagogіchnogo unіversitetu. Serіya: Fіlologіchnі science (Scientific Notes of Kirovograd State Pedagogical University. Series: Philological Sciences). 181–187 (in Ukr.)
Lonska, L. I. (2011). Two-part sentences of being with temporal semantics. Visnyk Cherkaskogo unіversitetu. SerіyаFіlologіchnі nauky (Herald of Cherkasy University. Series: Philological Sciences). (in Ukr.)
Lonska, L. I. (2006). Semantic and Syntactic Peculiarities of Predicates of existence in modern Ukrainian language. Movoznavchy visnyk. (Linguistic Herald). 3, 86–93.
Lonska, L. I. (2011). Three-component models of two-part sentences of being in the Ukrainian Language. Naukovі zapysky. SerіyaFіlologіya (Scientific Notes. Series: Philology). (in Ukr.)
Great Interpretative vocabulary of the modern Ukrainian Language (2002) Іrpіn: WTF "Perun" (in Ukr.) 18. Gryshchenko, A. P. (1986). Adjective in the Ukrainian Language. Ukraіnska mova i lіteratura v shkolі (Ukrainian Language and literature at schoole). 7, 43–44 (in Ukr).