ASPECTUAL “PICTURE” OF A VERBAL LEXICAL UNIT AND MEANS OF ITS FORMATION

Mykola Ivanovych KALKO

Abstract


Introduction. Grammatical studies in the recent half-century have been applying aspectuality as a most sophisticated and highly-ranged category. It is as well regarded a legendary, or rather a fatal one, being compared to some entangled set of matters, or mainly unsolved and vague issues. Since the appropriate scholar description of the verbal category can’t still be found, one of the main reasons for the eminent unrest of the researchers is known to be, as we can judge, their ungrounded attempt to put the aspect within a rigid and sterile framework meanwhile ignoring the obvious multi-level contents of the verbal category. The chief approach to the description of aspectuality regarded by Lyons as objectivist had been created by Maslov and Wendler in the mid 20th century being later established by the aspectuality studies of the late 20th- early 21st century, in the so called “binary” aspect theory. It proves the necessity of applying aspectual analysis for the whole number of meanings and all contexts of the verb since aspectual classes (lexical component of aspectuality) and the category of aspect (grammatical component of aspectuality) are not aimed at a verbal lexeme in general but at each lexical-semantic variant of the lexeme. Ignoring this factor, in our opinion, results in cute polemics over numerous aspectual issues which originated through the attempts to force the aspect into rigid category framework, beyond the influence of various triggers on the aspectual significance of the verb. Purpose. Through all this, the article is aimed at applying the objectivist approach to describing the verbal aspect that enables, with the appropriate research instrumental means, to create a real and detailed, though not schematic, aspectual “picture” of a poly-semantic verbal lexeme. Results. Creation of the aspectual “palette” of a verbal lexeme is originated from differentiating its lexical-semantic variants as it might be involved into an appropriate aspectual class and eventually into a definite aspectual partnership that is generally affiliated to the complex aspectual diagnostics: its provision reveals a whole spectrum of aspect features for a verbal lexeme and also the finest shades of its aspectual specification. Originality. Aspectual studies being generally orientated in an objectivist way, together with the immediate consideration of the aspect influencing the grammatically specified lexical phenomena, like the aspectual regarded verbal classes, are new to the Ukrainian lingual studies, though quite natural in the process of investigating formal grammatical and functioning grammatical traits of the Ukrainian verbal aspect. Conclusion. Complex considering for the aspectual semantics stratification based on the objectivist approach draws perspectives for the aspect and aspectual features to be fully analyzed.


Keywords


aspect; aspectuality; aspectuality class; perfective; imperfective; eventive; terminative; activitive; stative; relative; aspectual partnership

References


Karpuhin, S. A. (2008). Semantics Russian verb aspect. Samara (in Russ.) Lyons, J. (2003). Linguistic semantics: An Introduction. Moscow: Languages slavic culture (in Russ.)

 

Maslov, Yu. S. (1948). Aspect and lexical meaning of the verb in the modern Russian literary language. Izvestija AN SSSR. Otdelenie literatury i jazyka. (Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Department of Literature and Language), VII, 4, 303-316 (in Russ.)

 

Vendler, Z. (1967). Verbs and times. Linguistics in philosophy. Ithca : Cornell University Press. 97–121.

 

Kalko, M. I. (2009). Aspectual classes Ukrainian verb on the background classes of Z. Vendler. Ukrai'ns'ka mova (Ukrainian language), 3, 17-27.

 

Plungian, V. A. (1998). Grammatical categories and their analogs and alternates. Moscow (in Russ.)

 

Kalko, M. I. (2008). Aspekt: categorization, classification and representation in modern Ukrainian literary language. Cherkasy: Publisher Chabanenko Yu (in. Ukr.)

 

Grammar of Ruski language. Made Stepan Smal-Stocki and Fedor Gartner (1914). Vienna: The court and the university press Adolf Holtshavzen (in. Ukr.)


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