LIUNGUOSOCIOCULTURAL PECULIARITIES OF THE CITY SPEECH THROUGH THE PRISM OF SLANG IDIOMS
Introduction. City speech research is one of the most actual questions of modern linguistics, because by its social substratum and linguistic peculiarities city language coincides neither with literary language nor with dialects. The most important is the research of peripheral units, especially slang idioms. Besides, they must be learned in the sociocultural aspect as idioms themselves are considered to be the component of national culture. To indicate the general tendencies of city speech developing the author suggests studying slang phraseology of the Ukrainian, Russian and English languages. Thus, the purpose of the article is to research linguocultural and sociolinguistic peculiarities of the city speech on the material of slang idioms of three languages. Methods. Linguistic methods: comparative; structural, which is realized in the methodology of componential analysis; descriptive and quantitative methods. Among the marginal methods the method of sociolinguistic analysis was used here. Results. On the base of slang phraseology comparison of three languages it is possible to define their common and different features. So common slang is wide-spread in three languages, among corporate jargon youth slang is the most popular. Professional slang is widely presented in the Ukrainian phraseological system, which is the proof of permanent business and diligence of Ukrainians. The slang idioms community of three languages is also shown in the ways of their forming, because the most productive of them are: semantic reinterpretation and forming of new, original expressions. Moreover, in the slang idioms structure of three languages there are components that denote frequent national names, which make utterances more ironic. But Ukrainian slang idioms are characterized be availability of the components that denote national customs, symbols and realia, which show the singularity and importance of culture for Ukrainians. English slang idioms are distinguished by involvement the animals’ names to their structure, that is a proof of stereotyped opinion to British people as the animal lovers. Originality. The article is the first attempt to describe linguosociocultural peculiarities of slang idioms on the material of the Ukrainian, Russian and English languages. Conclusion. The comparing analysis allows defining the main tendencies of city speech developing: dynamics of slang wordcreating, searching for the new ways of expressiveness and emotionality, extension of functional lines of slang.
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