MODUS MOTIVATOR IN ENGLISH PRAGMONYMS
The article is devoted to the problem of motivation of English pragmonyms (names of different kinds of transport, food products, cosmetic products, ect.) in cognitive-onomasiological aspect. The theoretical basis of the paper is the methodology of cognitive-onomasiological analysis, worked out by Selivanova O. O. The purpose of the article is the analysis of mechanisms of formation of modus motivated trade names of perfumes. Such purpose is explained by the modus type of motivation, which is characterized by the choice of motivator taking into account only its evaluating meaning. Other properties of this onomasiological feature are not topical to form semantics of motivated name. Results. In the course of our research we analyzed different kinds of valuations which serve the basis for formation of modus motivated English pragmonyms. The most widespread type of assessment is sublimated evaluation: ethic and aesthetic. Sublimated evaluation of beauty is vividly displayed in English names of perfumes: «Beautiful», «Fragile», «Amazing». This type of evaluation is also connected with precious stones: «Black Pearls», «Diamonds and Emeralds», «Diamonds and Rubbies», «Diamonds and Sapphires». Traditionally the concept FLOWER is used in the names of perfumes: «Flower», «Quelque Fleurs», «Sunflowers». Another type of assessment is psychological, which combines emotional and intellectual evaluation. The basis for formation of English names of perfumes is positive emotional evaluation: «Joy», «Pleasures», «Espirit», «Desire», «Longing», «Happy». English names of perfumes with positive emotional evaluation can also have metaphoric motivator: «Eden» (in the Bible, the beautiful place where the first humans, Adam and Eve, lived), «Аngel» (a spirit that in some religions is believed to live in heaven with God. MAINLY SPOKEN a very kind person). There are also some quaint English names of perfumes: «Poison», «Tender Poison». Such pragmonyms actualize their most important function – to attract customer’s attention, to influence on customer’s emotional sphere and subconsciousness, to evoke them to buy. The denotative meaning of such motivator and its negative evaluation in onomasiological structure are extinguished in such names, as according to the explanatory dictionary the lexeme poison has only negative meanings: «1. a substance that can kill you or make you ill if you eat, drink or breathe it; 2. something that has a negative effect; 3. words or actions that express the feeling of hating someone. One more motivator which is popular enough among English pragmonyms and which correlates with aesthetic evaluation is precedent phenomenon. Some precedent names are based on mythological nature of anthroponyms which is connected with customs, ritual, traditions: «Anteus», «Helen of Troy». To make a conclusion we should say that sublimated aesthetic evaluation of beauty and psychological positive emotional evaluation are highlighted in modus motivated English pragmonyms. It helps them to fulfill their main functions: attractive, suggestive, emotive, evaluative, aesthetic and cultural-projective.
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