CRITERIA AND WAYS OF DIFFERENTIATION OF PARTS OF A SENTENCE

Nina Fedorivna GROZIAN

Abstract


Introduction. The attention is to be paid to the problem of determining the criteria and ways of differentiation of a syntactic role of sentence parts because of their complicated and rather wide diversity of expression. Relevance of a topic shows the availability of numerous, quite often opposite, concepts and approaches, which concern the place of analyzed components among other syntactic units, the definition of differentiated features of sentence parts, their typology and formal, semantic and communicative differentiation. The purpose of the paper is to find out criteria and ways of the differentiation of sentence parts in a great number of researches. Results. A terminological tool of the differentiation of sentence parts was presented in the paper. Criteria and ways of the differentiation of sentence parts, concerning theoretical explanation and methodological grounds of the differentiation of structural-semantic components, were suggested. Formal (syntactic links) and semantic (semantic-syntactic relations) criteria were mentioned. The major way of the differentiation of secondary parts of a sentence is the relation which they have with other components, that is, the relation between: sentence parts themselves (formal-syntactic aspect), syntaxemes (semanticsyntactic aspect), communicatemes – components which are classified as topics and comments (communicative aspect). The ways of the differentiation of secondary parts of a sentence in view of their structural characteristics were emphasized. It has been proved that the whole complex of criteria and ways of the differentiation of minimal syntactic units is based on their differentiated classification features. It has been stated that when differentiating sentence parts it is necessary to take into consideration their correlation with formal-syntactic, semantic-syntactic and communicative matches. Originality. The originality of this research consists in describing a terminological tool of the differentiation of sentence parts; the differentiation of the criteria and ways of the distinction of sentence parts, concerning theoretical explanation and methodological grounds of the differentiation of minimal syntactic units; in explaining the dependence of criteria and ways of the differentiation of secondary parts of a sentence on their classification features. Conclusion. The conclusion has been made that the differentiation of criteria and ways of the distinction of sentence parts concerns theoretical explanation and methodological principles of sentence part differing. Relations between sentence parts themselves, syntaxemes and communicatemes serves as the main criteria of the differentiation of minimal syntactic units. A syntactic link is a formal means of the expression of semantic-syntactic relations which ensures the functioning of syntactic units. The ways of the distinction of secondary sentence parts in view of their differentiated structural features are: semantic questions, morphological expression; subordinate links between structural-semantic components; a possibility of synonymic substitution of some word phrases for others; the consideration of peculiarities of categorical semantics of a main word, true perception of spatial relations and a lexical meaning of a main word and subordinate ones. The determination of criteria differentiation of minimal syntactic units has to take into consideration correlations of traditional secondary sentence parts with their formal-syntactic, semantic-syntactic and communicative matches. The challenge of our further scientific search is in adding concrete linguistic material to theoretical and methodological principles of the differentiation of sentence parts.

Keywords


part of a sentence; differentiation criteria of parts of a sentence; differentiation ways of parts of a sentence; syntactic link; semantic-syntactic relation

References


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