THE IMAGE OF HETMAN BOHDAN KHMELNYTSKY IN THE NOVEL «ZINOVYI BOHDAN KHMELNYTSKY, OR LIBERATED LITTLE RUSSIA» BY F. N. GLINKA: TO THE PROBLEM «HERO AND STYLE»

Yulia Viktorivna VOLYNETS

Abstract


Introduction. In world history there are many personalities whose activities are directly or indirectly integrated into the events of different countries or nations, their national history or culture. Figure of Ukrainian Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky is undoubtedly among them. Many literary texts in Ukrainian, Russian and Polish literatures are devoted him. Literary (and folk) interpretation of the image of Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky started since his «baroque» epoch. Other stylistic periods presented their versions of the image of the famous Ukrainian figure. Of course, the creation of a literary image of Bohdan Khmelnytsky influenced largely ideological and political factors. So we have to consider them during the reflection planes literary works. The main attention is concentrated to the problem of image creation the hero (Bohdan Khmelnytsky) in the artistic work, written in the early Romanticism. It’s an unfinished novel «Zinovyi Bohdan Khmelnytsky, or Liberated Little Russia» by Russian writer Fyodor Glinka. Glinka’s novel didn’t often become the object of scientific study for various reasons. Some aspects of novel analyzed by V. Troitsky, A. Arkhypova, Y. Nahlik, M. Nayenko and others. The researchers pay attention to the style of artistic work (preromantic and romantic). The artistic interpretation of the events and Bohdan Khmelnytsky in detail presents in the works by N. Zharkevych and T. Marchenko. Purpose. The image analysis of hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky in the novel «Zinovyi Bohdan Khmelnytsky, or Liberated Little Russia» by F. N. Glinka of the light style, and motivational and ideological factors is the purpose of this article. Results. Originality. Russian writer Fyodor Glinka wrote the novel «Zinovyi Bohdan Khmelnytsky, or Liberated Little Russia» in 1817. The author’s work on the text of the novel lasted for ten years, but for unknown reasons the work was not finished. The novel consists of two chapters («two books»). Ukrainian theme was very popular in Russian and Polish literatures in XIX century. Ukraine’s theme, theme of the liberation war against Poland, figure of Bohdan Khmelnytsky particularly had influence on creation of the texts in 1820s. F. Glinka tried to promote ideas of the Decembrist movement in his artistic works. The writer searched an image in the historical past, which must embody the main idea of Decembrist’s ideology – political upheaval and change in the state system for the liberation of the people. The writer chooses Bohdan Khmelnytsky. Glinka wrote his novel in a romantic style. Romantic Hero is unusual personality, beautiful externally and internally, rebel, he wants to serve the common cause and his people. He patriot able to detect its own initiative, take responsibility, has a rich emotional world, noble in own maximalism and uncompromising. This hero serves to national idea. The image of Bohdan Khmelnytsky created in romantic style. This hero-patriot, the main purpose of life is to release the fatherland, defend their faith and fight for it. The birth of B. Khmelnytsky in an army in the «dark» night and extremely bright morning is romantically symbolic. The divination, secret signs, the symbols in the novel demonstrated the unusual figure of Bohdan Khmelnytsky. The prophetic dream about his future, in which its main life mission is to serve to their own people and native land, is presented in the book. The inner world of the hero is showed across the symbolic paintings of nature. The problem of the unification of Ukraine (Little Russia) with Russia is logically motivated (of course, in the spirit of imperial discourse). F. Glinka focuses not so much on the physical strength Bohdan Khmelnytsky as on the inner nobility, valor and honor, shows the hero who inspires others by example. The author presents the desire for revenge of young Khmelnytsky to his enemy in Romantic style. The beautiful woman prevented the implementation of this revenge. Bohdan was struck by her beauty and feelings. Portraits of all the characters of the novel clearly designed in romantic style. The author makes the special accent on eyes and stare of the hero, describing across them character Khmelnytsky. Throughout the novel the author disclose not only the image of Khmelnytsky, but he analyses it in a romantic style and context of the time (Decembrist movement) and own views. Several other situations with the projection on the protagonist are written in a romantic style. This is the stay of B. Khmelnytsky in Tatar army, his conflict with Chaplynsky etc. Conclusion. The typical romantic image of the hero is in the novel «Zinovyi Bohdan Khmelnytsky, or Liberated Little Russia» by F. N. Glinka. The meaning of his life is especially in the liberation of the motherland, faithful work for her. F. Glinka created the ideal of the hero, leader with the aim of promoting ideology of Decembrist. The author used the romantic symbolic pictures, signs, portrait and landscape in the novel. The fantasy / surmise are predominant in artistic work; the real events fade into the background. The image of Ukrainian Hetman created under the Russian imperial historiosophical influence. It can be assumed, that the literary image of Bohdan Khmelnytsky by F. Glinka could in some way influence the creation of the romantic image of Ukrainian Hetman in later historical texts of Russian literature (works by P. Golota, A. Kuzmich, etc.).

Keywords


Romanticism; history; hero; genre and stylistic features; folklore’s basis; historiosophical position; imperial discourse; anti-Polish and pro-Russian stance; Little Russia; artistic interpretation; social meaning; patriotism; religiousness, symbolism; an

References


Glinka, F. N. (1991). Zinovyi Bohdan Khmelnytsky, or Liberated Little Russia. Kyiv: Dnipro, 407 – 456 (in Rus.)

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Zharkevych, N. (1978). The history of the novel «Zinovyi Bohdan Khmelnytsky, or Liberated Little Russia» by F. N. Glinka. Radyans’ke literaturoznavstvo (Soviet literary), 7, 57-64 (in Ukr.)

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Marchenko, T. M. (2011). Age of Bohdan Khmelnytsky in Russian romantic picture of the world: the transformation of folklore, chronicles, historiographical traditions. Simferopol (in Ukr.)

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