MEANS AND METHODS OF NATURAL AND LANDSCAPE FEATURES’ REALIZATION OF MEDIEVAL TOWN’S TOPOS ( BASED ON NOVELS OF PAUL ZAHREBELNY "DEATH IN KYIV" AND "PERVOMIST")

Taisa Viktorivna LITVYNCHUK

Abstract


Introduction. The inherent feature of P. Zahrebelny historical prose "Death in Kyiv" and "Pervomist", presenting a series of novels about the princely era, is author’s focus not only on the socio-historical conditions of Kievan Rus public policy, the role of personality in its formation, but on the medieval era’s culture, originality of its urban space creation. Based on this, the study of original creation of some medieval town topos’ natural and landscape features are noteworthy. Purpose.The objective of an article is study of means and methods of natural and landscape features’ realization of Kyiv topos on material of Paul Zahrebelny novels “Death in Kyiv ” and “Pervomist”, study of its art organization’s regularity and originality. Results. The work determined that the topos of Kyiv in P. Zahrebelny historical novels "Death in Kyiv" and "Pervomist" can be represented not only as the center of all state (Kyivska Gora, Volodymyriv gorod), the center of the orthodoxy (Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra, St. Sophia Cathedral) or a specific place with its individual elements of buildings, plazas and squares (Upper and Lower Kyiv, Podil, Borychevy descent, Golden Gate, etc.), due to the description of which is easily to guess Kyiv Rus capital, but also as a complex of natural landscape features’ images and locus. Both of them (almost without exception) can function in novels separately and in combination with other components of the other topos types of the city, forming a compositional unity depicted. The brightest natural and landscape features, for which author refers to for creating the topos landscape of the city, are the sun, the sky and Dnipro, which form the ideological and thematic integrity and implement the sense-creating function. Originality. The study noted coherence and consistency to the visual appeal of the author visualization of reality, sometimes the display supported by a combination of auditory and tactile sensations. The most expressive art reception is the use of author’s proper epithets, metaphors used to form the characteristics depicted, author’s individual comparisons and the comparisons of natural landscape features depicted (vysokoholube nebo, zeleni rozdzvony Kyiva, bdjolyne gudinnia zolote etc.). One of the dominant ways of medieval town’s topos creation in the novels of P. Zahrebelny is hero’s “vseprysutnist”, which is supported not only by memories and comparisons with their location, but with author’s words, actually duplicated the direct language of specific characters. Noted that the image of the Dnipro in both author’s novels is close to the mythological and folkloric representations, which acquire distinct identity of an author. Conclusion. Thus, the article explores natural and landscape features of kyevorus’ capital topos, regularity and originality of his artistic principles in historical novels of P.Zahrebelny. To determine the identity of generalized topos of the medieval city, its defining assets we should apply also to research of cities’ topos as centers throughout the state, the center of orthodoxy and architectural grandeur, the city with its streets and squares in historical novels of P. Zahrebelny.


Keywords


topos; locus; town; medieval; landscape; P. Zahrebelny; “Death in Kyiv”; “Pervomist”; the sun; the sky; Dnipro

References


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