Olga Yuriivna MIROSHNYK


Introduction: The problem of psycho-biographical research into writer’s life is veryimportant and common in the modern literary Criticism. Psycho-biographical method allows us to deeply research the history of Stefanyk’s spiritual formation, emotions, state of mind, which can be actually seen in creative projections as images, problematics. Psycho-biography of the writer gives us an opportunity to understand his creations more deeply. Vasyl Stefanyk’s creative contribution contains a great autobiographical part – in particular, three autobiographies, in which author tells us about facts and events that made the biggest impression on him and influenced his life. The first Vasyl Stefanyk’s autobiography, issued on February 9, 1926, is a subject of this research.

Purpose: To do a psycho-biographical research into Vasyl Stefanyk’s autobiography, issued on February 9, 1926

Methods: Psycho-biographical

Results:From the first words of his autobiography, Vasyl Stefanyk presents the life story of his family and at the same time his own life situation as constant row of loss and farewells. This is why his feeling of loneliness expended to the limits.  Author’s referring to situations from his childhood presented as clearly emotional reaction, wanting to find an escape from the present lonely deadlock. In the mean time,  these memories do not give him the feeling of comfort, because they express childhood fears, which experienced Stefanyk.  Particularly, there are two fears, described very clearly: society and the devil.  The reason of the first fear is a real threat to lose protection of his parents. The reason of second fear is the feeling of guilt before God and the impression of losing his support. Ambivalent attitude towards his mother makes this fear even stronger.

There is a possibility, that childhood traumatic situation becomes one of the reasons why Vasyl Stefanyk’s feeling of belonging to the marginal society group formed. This feeling will define Stefanyk’s circle of friends in teenage years and grown-up life and will make all social integration attempts dramatic and painful.

During the studying in Snyatyn School V. Stefanyk feels society’s non-acceptance and clear aggression.  Next step – studying in Polish Gymnasium in the town of Kolomyua – deepens the issue. Stefanyk is humiliated – mentally and physically – from the cruelty of students and teachers and feels the belonging to the marginal part of society even stronger. Conflicts with society increases Stefanyk’s unconscious resistance of the need of adjusting to the antagonistic world. Unwillingness to learn becomes one of the ways to show this resistance.

Vasyl Stefanyk is looking for friendly relationships with strong, talented personalities, who have the ability to oppose society’s aggressive pressure and keep the feeling of self-confidence. These relationships compensate Stefanyk’s own weakness against the antagonistic world, actualize his desire to fight back.

 At the same time, there is a feeling of personal inferiority in Stefanyk’s desire to look like his talented friends. His own talent Vasyl takes as miserable thing, that doesn’t worth anybody’s attention. Being in the shadow of talented friends reduces Stefanyk’s self-esteem, cultivates creative inferiority, does not give a chance to realize his own talent, which forms and gets stronger.  So, Vasyl Stefanyk is very talented writer, who doesn’t have a chance to fully realize his talent because of low self-esteem. Own creations writer takes as miserable, something that will get lost in the great amount of truly talented works.

Originality: The problem of detailed autobiographical research into Vasyl Stefanyk’s life, which may give an opportunity to understand his literary work, is very common nowadays.

Conclusion: Vasyl Stefanyk’s autobiography, issued on February 9, 1926, is a dramatic story of his spiritual formation in conditions of adverse, antagonistic surroundings. Author concentrates on internal chronology of his life – his states of soul, spiritual achievements and losses, makes unconscious accents that allow us to read the history and drama of his life.  The rest of his literary work should be a subject of the next scientific researches. 


Psycho-biography; autobiography; internal chronology; writer; personality; fear; society; marginal group; resistance; inferiority; talent; literary work; creative projection


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