THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMPARATIVE DISCOURSE OF SHAKESPEARE, LESYA UKRAINKA AND AMERICAN CONFESSIONAL POETRY IN THE WORK “THE CODE OF UKRAINIAN LITERATURE” BY NILA ZBOROVSKA

Olga Oleksandrivna SMOLNYTSKA

Abstract


Introduction. The psychohistory is a complex research of Ukrainian literature by Ukrainian psychoanalytic (freudianist), literary critic and writer Nila Zborovska (1962 – 2011). As a representative of hard (orthodox) Freudianism she, however, remains an individual personality in Ukrainian literary criticism. Without regard to an awareness from Jungian studies and analysis of fairy-tales (unfortunately, this practical project was not realized by her), there is a reason to identify N. Zborovska as Ukrainian Marie-Louise von Franz.Purpose is research of the method by N. Zborovska that is based on the Shakespearian complex and the confessional poetry (USA) in accordance with the literature images (personalities) by Lesya Ukrainka and Ukrainian literature as whole.Methods. The article is based on such methods as comparative studies, psychoanalyst (Freudianism), literary studies, contextual, culture studies, cognitive translation studies, biographical (about Lesya Ukrainka, Fedor Dostoyevski, Sylvia Plath). There are experimental projects as autotranslations of Christopher Marlowe and American confessional poetry (Sylvia Plath, Anne Sexton) given in the research. These texts are at first translated into Ukrainian.Results. The Ukrainian scholar used to analyze clinical approach from positions of that populism and modernism (in particular, as oral-anal by Sigmund Freud) are analyzed goes out in an analysis exactly, sadomasochism in literature. N. Zborovska at first compared the Hamlet complex in the novel of Panas Myrnyi “Do the Oxen Low When the Manger Is Full”, definited hysterical aspect in the tragedy by William Shakespeare “King Richard the Second” and so on. The last noted aspect is developed in this article of the comparison with the tragedy by Christopher Marlowe “Edward II” which was the base of Shakespeare’s one, and with the person of Mary Stuart. Mythological aspect suggested by N. Zborovska (especially about Kronos) is cultivated. The parallels with the family Kosach and image of Ukrainian girl Liza Khokhlakova from Kharkiv (the novel by F. Dostoyevski “The Brothers Karamazov”) which are made by N. Zborovska, are developed in this article. The context of hysteria is given in the examples of Ludwig II of Bavaria, Maria von Vetsera, Crown Prince Rudolf, Sabina Spielrein, the heroes of dramas by Volodymyr Vynnychenko etc.Originality. The article proposes the new terminology about the method by Nila Zborovska who named her innovation as “psychohistory”. This research definites her investigations as comparative psychohistory or psychohistorical comparative studies because the analitist used broad Ukrainian and other contextual material. Also the innovation of this article is a comparative analysis of the drama by Lesya Ukrainka “Blue Rose” (Ukr. “Blakytna troyanda”) and “Ghosts” (Norwegian “Gengangere”), “Hedda Gabler”, “The Wild Duck” by Henrik Ibsen. The similar contextual features of the noted Ukrainain drama and “Ghosts” are traced even in details, the biography and psychology of Lyuba Hoshchynska and Oswald Alving have similar formation. The epoch in Russian empire, Austria-Hungarian empire, Victorian England and Lutheran Scandinavia is described, and the same base of this comparative analysis is formulated as suppression of individuality. “Blue Rose” and “Ghosts” demonstrate mother complex, and this aspect appears in the American confessional poetry, especially in the poem by S. Plath “Daddy” which has Freudian and Nazi symbolic. The problems of Ukrainian identity (Lesya Ukrainka, Liza Khokhlakova) and German/American identity (S. Plath) in another medium are analyzed in unconsciousness planes.Conclusion. So, historical, cultural and other connections make the whole prism of understanding modernism and reasons of the interest in clinical methods and experience in the 20th  century. The comparison of Lyuba Hoshchynska and Liza Khokhlakova proves the Ukrainian specific of the problem. American lyrics analyzed by N. Zborovska was theoretically based on the works by Freud. N. Zborovska warned the post-colonial Ukrainian audience that excessively fascinated S. Plath, because the analitist took into consideration her clinical presentation. This analysis demonstrates the rightness of approach by N. Zborovska, because her works illustrate complexes and confirm the aesthetic choice of Ukrainian literature of end of the 20th - beginning of the 21st century. 


References


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