SPECIFIC OF PARATEXT IN POETRY OF MYKHAILO DRAY-KHMARA AND PAVLO FYLYPOVYCH
Introduction. Zh. Zhenett in his book "Palimpsests: literature in the second degree" offered to distinguish five types of interactions in texts: intertextuality; paratextuality, metatextuality; hypertextuality and arkhitextuality. In this article, the main focus is on the phenomenon of paratextuality that is distinguished in context of historical and literary studies, according to the example of two Kiev "neoclassic" representatives’ works. Purpose - to investigate the specific features of paratextual elements (titles, epigraphs, dedications) in works of M. Dray-Khmara and P.Fylypovych.Results. Selection of intertextual titles, epigraphs and dedications depends on many factors such as socio-political and cultural situation, fashion, cycle of "nuclear" and "precedent" texts of certain community representatives, and first of all – from writers’ personal intentions, competence and preferences. In the research process of Mykhailo Dray-Khmara’s works three intertextual titles, one epigraph and 11 dedications were found; in the poetry of P. Fylypovych were found 11 intertextual titles, two epigraphs and only 1 dedication. These quantitative indicators allow us to make a suggestion about the openness to the world and communication (conditional "extroversion") of M. Dray-Khmara and closed nature ("introversion") of P. Fylypovych.Title is the first sign of the text that forms its preunderstanding and is the first step to the interpretation. This studio intertextual titles, that forms a metatext “dialogue”, should be taken into consideration. Limited intertextual titles in works of M.Dray-Khmara redirect to the facts and phenomena of world literature ("Scheherazade," "Spanish ballad", "Thomas Moore"), whereas in the works of P.Fylypovych are much more such names that include references to the Bible ("Salome"), ancient literature ("From ancient bas"), world classics ("Rosita", "The Snow Queen", "Goethe") and historical figures ("Spartacus"), Ukrainian literature and history ("Taras Shevchenko", "Semenko", "Volodymyr Monomakh", etc.). While selecting the title, authors usually "trigger" the mechanisms of citation, reminiscences, allusions. The most obvious connection of one author’s work with the texts of another appears in names that combine functions of the title and dedication. Such cases in poetry of M.Dray-Khmara are not occasional: for example, "In Memory of S.Yesenin", "To the Poet" (dedicated to Pavlo Tychyna) and others.An important role for right interpretation of the text plays an epigraph that is a key to the right interpretation of the text. Writers often use motto in order to emphasize their own reflections by the authority of "classic authors", to deepen the semantics of the work. M. Dray-Khmara and P. Fylypovych epigraphs to the heritage are rare (in comparison: the poetry of Zerov found 40 epigraphs, Rylskyi - 20): yes, P. Fylypovych uses two epigraphs (lines from Shevchenko’s "Podrazhaniya 11 Psalmu" and Tychyna’s poetry "The Grief to the Madonna" M. Dray-Khmara uses only one (poetry of Lesia Ukrainka "Legends").A literary text dedication identifies a number of artistic, aesthetic, intellectual associations, that together with the name make a certain field of emotional perception of the text, as well as a range of interpretational options. In the work of Rylskyi were found 32 dedications, M. Zerov -18, M.Dray-Khmara - 11, the author dedicates his works to various recipients: daughter, friends and acquaintances, but most of his works are dedicated to writers (friends - neoclassicist and those whom he treated with reverence and affection: M. Hvyliovyi, P. Tychyna, H. Kosynka, "In Memory of S. Esenin"). On the other hand in poetry of P. Fylypovych only one example of dedicational title - "To M. K. Zankovetska" is available.Originality. It the research of poetry of M. Dray-Khmara and P. Fylypovych, paratext elements (titles, epigraphs, dedications), its types and functions were systematically analyzed first time ever.Conclusion. This article shows the individual approaches to the problem of intertextual titles, dedications and epigraphs examination; this phenomenon requires further studies which include the involvement of a wider range of authors. This will be the subject of our further scientific studies.
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